Modified Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology in Investigating Iranian Language Learners’ Attitudes Toward Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL)

Document Type : Original Article


1 English Language Teaching, Department of English Language, Faculty of Humanities, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, IR Iran

2 English Language Teaching, Department of English Language, Faculty of Accounting and Management, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin branch, Qazvin, IR Iran


Introduction The modified unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (MUTAUT) was used in this mixed methods study to investigate language learners’ attitudes toward mobile assisted language learning (MALL). Methods Two different student surveys were used to collect data quantitatively. The surveys consisted of 24 and 23 items, respectively, rated on a 6-point Likert scale. Reliability was estimated to be 0.92 and 0.95, respectively. To collect data qualitatively, language learners were interviewed regarding their opinions on MALL. Standard multiple regression and descriptive statistics employing IBM SPSS version 21 were used to analyze the data. Results Analysis of quantitative data revealed that performance expectancy, effort expectancy, and perceived playfulness were significant predictors of the behavioral intention to use mobile devices, while self-management of learning and social influence were not (P < 0.001). Analysis of descriptive statistics from the second survey showed that language learners have totally positive attitudes toward effectiveness and satisfaction; however, their attitudes about usefulness were somewhat mixed. Analysis of qualitative data generally confirmed the quantitative results. Conclusions Language instructors should motivate students to use mobile devices to learn, become more autonomous language learners, and manage their own learning.