Document Type : Original Article
Ph.D. Candidate of Distance Education Planning, Payame Noor University, Tehran, IR Iran
Ph.D. of Curriculum Development, Faculty of Payame Noor University, Tehran, IR Iran
Ph.D. of Education Philosophy, Faculty of Payame Noor University, Tehran, IR Iran
Ph.D. of Geography, Faculty of Payame Noor University, Tehran, IR Iran
Introduction : It is important to prepare a scale for the pedagogical evaluation of distance education, in order to obtain more accurate information in this field. Based on the importance of this issue, the present study aims to prepare pedagogical evaluation scale of synchronous technologies in distance education and determine its psychometric properties. Methods : The research utilized a descriptive-survey method. The statistical population consisted of all virtual students (3915 virtual students) from all universities in Tehran who were undergoing distance education in the 2015 - 2016 academic year. A number of 390 graduate students were chosen by random cluster sampling method. For data collection, a self-made scale was utilized. Data were analyzed through SPSS software, version 21. Construct validity, convergent validity, test retest reliability, and internal reliability of this scale were calculated by the exploratory factor analysis model, Pearson moment correlation coefficient, and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. Reliability coefficient of the scale was calculated with Cronbach’s alpha method for the total scales and its subscales which was variable from 0.73 to 0.90. Results : After determining the face and content validities, the number of items in Pedagogical evaluation scale were reduced from 55 to 39 items. Construct validity of the scale was calculated by utilizing exploratory factor analysis model by principal component analysis method and varimax rotation, finally, 30 items and seven factors were extracted from it. The maximum overall variance (48.21%) was explained by the first 7 factors and the rest (51.79%) was explained by the other 23 factors. The result of exploratory factor analysis in this scale identified seven factors, including telepresence, interaction, flexibility, motivation, assessment, feedback, and perceived learning. Conclusions : The results of psychometric properties of the pedagogical evaluation scale of synchronous technologies in distance education suggested that the aforementioned scale is a reliable and valid instrument for pedagogical evaluation of synchronous technologies in distance education. Therefore, this scale can has important usage in the instructional design for distance learners’ learning.