Personalized Gamification in E-Learning with a Focus on Learners’ Motivation and Personality

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Information Technology Management, School of Management, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Information Technology Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Industrial Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

4 School of Management, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran


Background: This study sought to develop a personalized gamified e-learning system based on students' motivation and personality, and evaluate its efficacy with regard to their performance in mathematics. Methods: In this pretest-posttest experimental study, the participants included 117 students already familiar with e-learning systems. They took a mathematics course in January-February 2020, and were randomly assigned to five groups: Personalized Gamification (PG) based on motivation and personality (n=23), PG based on personality (n=23), PG based on motivation (n=23), non-personalized gamification (n=23), and control (n=25). Then the students’ scores and the time they spent on the learning management system (LMS) were compared before and after the personalization procedure. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS version 26. In this regard, independent-samples t-test was used to compare the mean scores at p 0.916 in both cases). Conclusion: PG has a significant positive effect on students’ scores compared to the non-gamified system, and it leads to a significant improvement in the learning time spent on LMS, compared to non-personalized gamified systems.


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