Enhancing the Students’ Academic Motivation and Learning Achievement through the Flipped Classroom Approach: An Educational Intervention

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Equational Technology, Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz, Iran

2 Department of E-learning, Virtual School, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

3 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Faculty of Health, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran


Background: Academic motivation is a fundamental aspect of learning that provides intensity and direction to a learner’s behavior. In recent years, the flipped classroom teaching method has gained popularity as a pedagogical approach that aims to enhance student learning outcomes and engagement. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of flipped Classroom Approach on elementary school students’ academic motivation and learning achievement. 
Methods: An educational interventional study employing a pretest-posttest design was conducted with an intervention and a control group. The study enrolled sixty eligible students who were studying in two elementary schools from August to December 2021. They were randomly allocated to intervention (flipped classroom approach, n=30) and control (traditional method, n=30) groups. To measure academic motivation, we used the standardized questionnaire, the Harter Academic Motivation, which consists of 33 questions. Also, for measuring the learning achievement, we developed a 20-item multiple-choice questionnaire. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS v 22.0. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was performed. P-value<0.05 was considered as the significance level. 
Results: The mean learning achievement and academic motivation scores in the intervention groups increased more than that the control group significantly (P<0.001). In contrast, in the control group, no significant changes were observed (P>0.05). Additionally, the outcomes demonstrated a significant increase in academic motivation scores among the flipped classroom group, particularly in the areas of preference for challenging academic tasks, focus on students’ curiosity, tendency towards independent mastery, and preference for easy work subscales, compared to the control group (P<0.001). The study did not find significant improvements in other areas of extrinsic motivation, such as satisfaction with the instructor or achieving grades, and reliance on the teacher’s evaluation. 
Conclusion: According to the results, flipped classroom approach can improve the students’ learning achievement and academic motivation regarding science.


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