Article Types / Software

This category is designed for concisely written submissions introducing new software programs, mobile applications, online services, games, etc., related to the field of education.

Manuscripts may provide detailed accounts and critical evaluations of innovative products, report substantial improvements to the existing products, or present experimental findings on using new systems and their features. Regarding the experimental or applied papers describing the use of technology, authors are required to provide sufficient data or documentation in support of the stated outcomes and benefits.

The information necessary for adoption of the technology should be stated in the article or readily available upon request. Manuscripts may also provide a critical review of the literature regarding the existing products and technologies.

The IJVLMS generally accepts Software articles of 1500-3000 words (including references), a maximum of 2 authors, 1-4 tables/Figures, and 10-15 references.

The format of a software article should be as follows:


Abstract: Authors should provide an unstructured narrative abstract summarizing the main points in the paper with 100-150 words and 4-7 keywords (keywords are provided for indexing and online searches and should be based on the MeSH Browser. Authors are encouraged to browse through articles on similar topics to find appropriate keywords).


Introduction: Provide a brief background and explain the relevant context and the specific issue that the software described is intended to address.


The main text might include the following sections:   


  • Features of Application
  • Evidence of Application
  • Advantages and Disadvantages
  • Conclusion
  • Footnotes
  • References



  • Abbreviations: In articles where abbreviations are frequently used, it is better to provide an abbreviation list for readers to reference and understand the concepts more quickly.

  • Acknowledgments: Recognize the individuals, institutes, or organizations that have contributed to the preparation of the article but do not meet the criteria for authorship. Contributions may include academic, technical, financial, or personal assistance in preparing the articles. The authors must indicate the contributors' affiliations and their specific contributions. The use of AI for writing assistance should be reported in the acknowledgment section.

  • Authors’ Contribution: Authors specify their contributions to the research process and writing of the manuscript. They indicate their contributions to different aspects of a project such as conceptualization, study design, experimentation, data acquisition, statistical analysis, preparing the manuscript, etc. Please note that the authors’ initials, rather than full names, should be used for identification.

  • Conflict of Interest: Authors must disclose any financial and non-financial competing interests in advance of the review process. They need to declare if they received financial payment for the research, or if they have close relationships with people or entities that could inappropriately influence (bias) their study. Non-financial interests may include the disclosure of any personal, political, religious, ideological, academic, and intellectual interests that might bias a study. General institutional support for an author’s time on the work should be distinguished from direct overall funding of the work. An appropriate funding statement might be: “The study was funded by A; Dr. F’s time on the work was supported by B.” If there are no competing interests, add the following statement: “The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest regarding the publication of this paper”.

  • Ethical Considerations: If a study involves human participants/or animals, authors need to obtain approval from the ethics committee/Institutional Review Board of their institution and be prepared to provide documentation when requested by editors. They must provide the name of the committee/board along with the Ethical Approval Code/ID. Authors should also declare that they have obtained written informed consent from each potential research participant. It should be clearly stated that the researchers were properly introduced before the research, and the participants understood the objectives of the research. The authors also maintain that the consent was not obtained under coercion and that the participants had the choice to withdraw at any stage of the research. Finally, it should be indicated that the participants were assured of confidentiality regarding the information provided.

  • Funding/Support: All sources of financial and material support for the research work are acknowledged in this section. Authors should identify the roles of the sponsor(s) if any, in study design, collection, analysis, interpretation of data, and in preparing the manuscript. Please include the name(s) of the funding organization(s) along with the grant number(s). If no funding has been provided for the research, please add the following statement: "This research did not receive any outside funding or support".

  • Availability of Data and Materials: A Data Availability Statement should be included in all technology manuscripts. Your data availability statement should describe how the data supporting the results reported in your paper can be accessed. With a data statement, an author can provide information about the data presented in an article and provide a reason if data is not available to access. Click HERE to see a template for different kinds of statements.

  • References conform to the style outlined by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), also referred to as the “Vancouver” style. References in the text should be numbered sequentially and placed in parentheses. 

The following general instructions must be observed when citing references. Moreover, IJVLMS has its own EndNote style. Authors are advised to prepare their references based on this style and add the file to the style folder of their Endnote in program files. This style is available HERE.

  • Referencing AI-generated material as the primary source is not acceptable.
  • References should be made to published articles rather than to abstracts whenever possible.

In-text citation:

  • References in the text should be numbered sequentially and placed in parentheses.
  • For in-text citation of a work with more than one author, use ‘et al.’ after the first author.
  • When citing several references for the same statement, use a hyphen to link the first and last numbers that are inclusive. For instance, (4, 5, 6, 7) must be abbreviated to (4-7). Use commas where the numbers are not consecutive in a multiple citation, e.g. (8, 13).

 Reference List:

  • The reference list appears at the end of the paper and is titled ‘References’.
  • References are listed in numerical order, and in the same order, they are cited in the text.
  • The reference list should include all and only those references that appear in the text.
  • If a work has more than 6 authors, please list the first six authors, followed by ‘et al.’
  • Please note that the journal titles in the reference list should be abbreviated in the style used in the NLM Catalog.
  • At least 80% of the references must have article identifiers, such as digital object identifier (DOI) and PubMed PMID (or PubMed Central PMCID). Please add these identifiers at the end of your references when available. You can visit the following link to search for DOIs and PMIDs of articles: It is highly recommended to use EndNote software for writing and managing references.

Listed below are sample references for different types of work. For further details and examples, authors may consult Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers (2nd edition).


Journal Article:

Almarzooq ZI, Lopes M, Kochar A. Virtual Learning During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Disruptive Technology in Graduate Medical Education. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2020;75(20):2635-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2020.04.015. PubMed PMID: 32304797; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPMC7159871.

Complete Book:

Secker J. Electronic resources in the virtual learning environment: a guide for librarians. Oxford: Elsevier Science; 2004.

Chapter in an Edited Book:

Fournier H, Kop R, Molyneaux H. New personal learning ecosystems: a decade of research in review. In: Becnel K, editor. Emerging technologies in virtual learning environments. Harshey: IGI Global; 2019. p. 1-19.


Meyer D. Virtual learning is the way forward for educators. Elmhurst: Elmhurst University; 2020 Oct 8. [Cited 2021 Nov 10]. Available from: