Nursing Knowledge-Sharing in Mobile Social Networks as a Means of Professional Dynamic Interactions: A Qualitative Content Analysis

Document Type : Original Article


1 Quran and Hadith Research Center, Nursing Faculty, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Life style institute, Nursing Faculty, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

3 Nursing Faculty, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

4 Department of Nursing Management, Faculty of Nursing, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran


Background: Nurses play a key role in maintaining and promoting community health; therefore, they need to constantly upgrade and update their professional knowledge through knowledge management process. Nowadays, knowledge-sharing within social networks is considered as a modern and effective strategy for the co-creation of new knowledge that would not be possible without the active participation of the members. The present study aimed to examine experiences of nursing knowledge-sharing in social networks based on smartphones. Methods: This was a qualitative content analysis conducted between 2017 and 2019 in Tehran, Iran. Participants were eighteen nurses from virtual communities in social network platforms and included nursing-related virtual specialty groups. They were selected by purposive sampling and sampling continued until data saturation was achieved. Strategy of data collection included in-depth and semi-structured interviews. The data were analyzed using Landman and Grenheim method with the aid of MAXQDA 10 software. Results: During the data analysis, six main categories emerged, including: a) “The emergence of virtual communities”, b) “Professional setting”, c) “Professional Virtual Communities”, d) “Dynamic interactions”, e) “Organizing and advancing” and f) “Outcomes of interaction in virtual communities”. Data analysis indicated that the main concern of nurses was professional advancement which encouraged them to create and join virtual communities to share knowledge. Dynamic interactions were also the main phenomenon studied. Conclusion: This study provided a better and deeper understanding of the phenomenon of sharing nursing knowledge in virtual communities based on smartphones. The acquired concepts can be used in creating professional virtual communities as well as diagnosing their complications


Meihami B, Meihami H. Knowledge Management a way to gain a competitive advantage in firms (evidence of manufacturing companies). International letters of social and humanistic sciences. 2014;3(14):80-91.doi: 10.18052/
Massa S, Testa S. A knowledge management approach to organizational competitive advantage: Evidence from the food sector. European Management Journal. 2009;27(2):129-41.
doi: 10.1016/j.emj.2008.06.005.
Halisah A, Jayasingam S, Ramayah T, Popa S. Social dilemmas in knowledge sharing: an examination of the interplay between knowledge sharing culture and performance climate. Journal of Knowledge Management. 2021.doi: 10.1108/JKM-08-2020-0631.
Schmitt TL, Sims-Giddens SS, Booth RG. Social media use in nursing education. OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. 2012;17(3).doi: 10.3912/OJIN.Vol17No03Man02. PubMed PMID:23036058.
Almansoori A, AlShamsi M, Salloum SA, Shaalan K. Critical Review of Knowledge Management in Healthcare. Recent Advances in Intelligent Systems and Smart Applications. 2021:99-119.
doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-47411-9_6.
Farsi Z, DEHGHAN‐NAYERI N, Negarandeh R, Broomand S. Nursing profession in Iran: an overview of opportunities and challenges. Japan journal of nursing science. 2010;7(1):9-18.
doi:10.1111/j.1742-7924.2010.00137.x. PubMed PMID: 20618672.
Murphy J, Honey ML, Newbold SK, Weber P, Wu Y, editors. Forecasting Informatics Competencies for Nurses in the Future of Connected Health. Nursing Informatics; 2018.
Peate I, Wild K. Nursing practice: Knowledge and care: John Wiley & Sons; 2018.
Ryan A, Schaper LK, Whetton S. Integrating and Connecting Care: Selected Papers from the 25th Australian National Health Informatics Conference (HIC 2017): IOS Press; 2017.
Mantas J, Hasman A, Gallos G. Informatics empowers healthcare transformation: IOS Press; 2017.
Nes AAG, Steindal SA, Larsen MH, Heer HC, Lærum-Onsager E, Gjevjon ER. Technological literacy in nursing education: A scoping review. Journal of Professional Nursing. 2021;37(2):320-34.
doi:10.1016/j.profnurs.2021.01.008. PubMed PMID:33867086.
Kermansaravi F, Navidian A, Yaghoubinia F. Nursing students' views of nursing education quality: a qualitative study. Global journal of health science. 2015;7(2):351.
doi: 10.5539/gjhs.v7n2p351. PubMed PMID:25716411; PubMed Central PMCID:PMC4796347.
Mancini ME, Ashwill J, Cipher DJ. A Comparative Analysis of Demographic and Academic Success Characteristics of On-line and On-Campus RN-to-BSN Students. Journal of Professional Nursing. 2015;31(1):71-6. doi:10.1016/j.profnurs.2014.05.008. PubMed PMID: 25601248.
Huang K, Srivastava S, Cartes D. Solving the information accumulation problem in mesh structured agent system. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems. 2007;22(1):493-5.
Archanjo de Souza DSdO, Pedro Salgado AM, Marins FAS, Muniz J. The influence of leaders' characteristics on the relationship between leadership and knowledge management. Knowledge Management Research & Practice. 2020:1-12.doi: 10.1080/14778238.2020.1730716.
Bhatt GD. Knowledge management in organizations: examining the interaction between technologies, techniques, and people. Journal of knowledge management. 2001.
Reinhardt MS, Flores Ríos BL, Tello CP, Gonzalez Navarro FF, Campbell Ramirez HE. A knowledge management approach to promote an energy culture in higher education. Knowledge Management Research & Practice. 2020;18(4):424-38. doi: 10.1080/14778238.2019.1701962.
Geisler E, Wickramasinghe N. Principles of Knowledge Management: Theory, Practice, and Cases: Theory, Practice, and Cases: Routledge; 2015. doi: 10.4324/9781315686448.
Maier R, Hadrich T. Knowledge management systems. Encyclopedia of Knowledge Management, Second Edition: IGI Global; 2011. p. 779-90.doi: 10.4018/978-1-59904-931-1.ch076.
Jennex ME. Knowledge management. Wiley Encyclopedia of Management. 2015:1-6.
doi: 10.1002/9781118785317.weom070035.
Trangenstein PA. Electronic toolkit for nursing education. Nursing Clinics of North America. 2008;43(4):535-46.doi: 10.1016/j.cnur.2008.06.004. PubMed PMID:18940410.
Mathe TL, Downing C, Kearns I. South African student nurses' experiences of professional nurses' role-modelling of caring. Journal of Professional Nursing. 2021;37(1):5-11.
doi: 10.1016/j.profnurs.2020.10.010. PubMed PMID:33674109.
Hassanian ZM, Ahanchian M, Karimi-Moonaghi H. The process of knowledge acquiring in nursing education: grounded theory. Research and Development in Medical Education. 2018;7(2):68-76.doi: 10.15171/rdme.2018.015.
Khammarnia M, Shahsavani F, Shahrakipour M, Barfar E. Relationship between knowledge management and quality of working life in nursing staff of Zahedan teaching hospitals, 2014. Health Scope. 2015;4(1). doi: 10.17795/jhealthscope-22696.
Alwagait E, Shahzad B, Alim S. Impact of social media usage on students academic performance in Saudi Arabia. Computers in Human Behavior. 2015;51:1092-7.doi:10.1016/j.chb.2014.09.028.
Paton C, Bamidis P, Eysenbach G, Hansen M, Cabrer M. Experience in the use of social media in medical and health education. Yearbook of medical informatics. 2011;20(01):21-9.
doi: 10.1055/s-0038-1638732.
Moorhead SA, Hazlett DE, Harrison L, Carroll JK, Irwin A, Hoving C. A new dimension of health care: systematic review of the uses, benefits, and limitations of social media for health communication. Journal of medical Internet research. 2013;15(4):e85.
doi: 10.2196/jmir.1933. PubMed PMID:23615206; PubMed Central PMCID:PMC3636326.
Nieuwboer CC, Fukkink RG, Hermanns JM. Online programs as tools to improve parenting: A meta-analytic review. Children and Youth Services Review. 2013;35(11):1823-9.
doi: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2013.08.008.
Benham-Hutchins M, Clancy TR. Social networks as embedded complex adaptive systems. JONA: The Journal of Nursing Administration. 2010;40(9):352-6. doi: 10.1097/NNA.0b013e3181ee42bc. PubMed PMID :20798616.
McCurry MK, Martins DC. Teaching undergraduate nursing research: a comparison of traditional and innovative approaches for success with millennial learners. Journal of Nursing Education. 2010;49(5):276-9. doi: 10.3928/01484834-20091217-02. PubMed PMID:20055330.
Lee S-K, Jeong S, Kim H-G, Yom Y-H. A Social Network Analysis of Research Topics in Korean Nursing Science. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing. 2011;41(5).
doi: 10.4040/jkan.2011.41.5.623. PubMed PMID: 22143211.
Hsieh H-F, Shannon SE. Three approaches to qualitative content analysis. Qualitative health research. 2005;15(9):1277-88.doi: 10.1177/1049732305276687. PubMed PMID: 16204405.
Akbari A, Gabdulhakov R. Platform surveillance and resistance in Iran and Russia: The case of Telegram. Surveillance & Society. 2019;17(1/2):223-31.doi: 10.24908/ss.v17i1/2.12928.
Graneheim UH, Lundman B. Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness. Nurse education today. 2004;24(2):105-12.
doi: 10.1016/j.nedt.2003.10.001. PubMed PMID:14769454.
Elo S, Kyngäs H. The qualitative content analysis process. Journal of advanced nursing. 2008;62(1):107-15. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2007.04569.x. PubMed PMID: 18352969.
Guba EG, Lincoln YS. Fourth generation evaluation: Sage; 1989.
Maher C, Hadfield M, Hutchings M, de Eyto A. Ensuring rigor in qualitative data analysis: A design research approach to coding combining NVivo with traditional material methods. International Journal of Qualitative Methods. 2018;17(1):1609406918786362.doi: 10.1177/1609406918786362.
Panahi S, Watson J, Partridge H. Conceptualising social media support for tacit knowledge sharing: physicians' perspectives and experiences. Journal of Knowledge Management. 2016.
Bautista JR, Lin TT. Nurses' use of mobile instant messaging applications: A uses and gratifications perspective. International journal of nursing practice. 2017;23(5):e12577.
doi: 10.1111/ijn.12577. PubMed PMID: 28752519.
Pimmer C, Brühlmann F, Odetola TD, Dipeolu O, Gröhbiel U, Ajuwon AJ. Instant messaging and nursing students' clinical learning experience. Nurse education today. 2018;64:119-24.
doi: 10.1016/j.nedt.2018.01.034. PubMed PMID: 29475195.
Hultquist BL. Innovative Teaching Strategies in Nursing and Related Health Professions: Jones & Bartlett Publishers; 2016.
Rosenberg MJ. Beyond e-learning: Approaches and technologies to enhance organizational knowledge, learning, and performance: John Wiley & Sons; 2005.
Razmerita L, Kirchner K, Nielsen P. What factors influence knowledge sharing in organizations? A social dilemma perspective of social media communication. Journal of knowledge Management. 2016.doi: 10.1108/JKM-03-2016-0112.
Javadpour A, Samiei S. Motivation and barriers to participation in virtual knowledge-sharing communities of practice. Management Science Letters. 2017;7(2):81-6.
doi: 10.5267/j.msl.2016.11.011.
Chiu C-M, Hsu M-H, Wang ET. Understanding knowledge sharing in virtual communities: An integration of social capital and social cognitive theories. Decision support systems. 2006;42(3):1872-88.doi: 10.1016/j.dss.2006.04.001.
Chen IY. The factors influencing members' continuance intentions in professional virtual communities-a longitudinal study. Journal of Information science. 2007;33(4):451-67.
doi: 10.1177/0165551506075323.
Paek H-J, Hove T, Jung Y, Cole RT. Engagement across three social media platforms: An exploratory study of a cause-related PR campaign. Public Relations Review. 2013;39(5):526-33.
doi: 10.1016/j.pubrev.2013.09.013.
Ardichvili A. Learning and knowledge sharing in virtual communities of practice: Motivators, barriers, and enablers. Advances in developing human resources. 2008;10(4):541-54.
doi: 10.1177/1523422308319536.
Cleveland S, Ellis TJ. Rethinking knowledge sharing barriers: A content analysis of 103 studies. International Journal of Knowledge Management (IJKM). 2015;11(1):28-51.
doi: 10.4018/IJKM.2015010102.
Paroutis S, Al Saleh A. Determinants of knowledge sharing using Web 2.0 technologies. Journal of knowledge management. 2009.doi: 10.1108/13673270910971824.
Lin M-JJ, Hung S-W, Chen C-J. Fostering the determinants of knowledge sharing in professional virtual communities. Computers in Human Behavior. 2009;25(4):929-39.
doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2009.03.008.
Wasko MM, Faraj S. "It is what one does": why people participate and help others in electronic communities of practice. The journal of strategic information systems. 2000;9(2-3):155-73.
doi: 10.1016/S0963-8687(00)00045-7.
Hsu M-H, Ju TL, Yen C-H, Chang C-M. Knowledge sharing behavior in virtual communities: The relationship between trust, self-efficacy, and outcome expectations. International journal of human-computer studies. 2007;65(2):153-69.doi: 10.1016/j.ijhcs.2006.09.003.
Rode H. To share or not to share: the effects of extrinsic and intrinsic motivations on knowledge-sharing in enterprise social media platforms. Journal of Information Technology. 2016;31(2):152-65.

Lin HF. Knowledge sharing and firm innovation capability: an empirical study. International Journal of manpower. 2007.doi: 10.1108/01437720710755272.
Potter PA, Faan RMP. Clinical Companion for Fundamentals of Nursing: Just the Facts: Elsevier Health Sciences; 2016.
Park MY. Nurses' perception of performance and responsibility of patient education. Taehan Kanho Hakhoe Chi. 2005;35(8):1514-21.doi: 10.4040/jkan.2005.35.8.1514. PubMed PMID: 16415633.
Parker M. Exploring tacit knowledge transfer: How community college leaders ensure institutional memory preservation: Northcentral University; 2011.
Ridings CM, Gefen D, Arinze B. Some antecedents and effects of trust in virtual communities. The journal of strategic information systems. 2002;11(3-4):271-95.doi: 10.1016/S0963-8687(02)00021-5.