Effectiveness of Flipped Learning on Academic Emotions in Arak University Students

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Islamic Studies, Arak University, Arak, Iran

2 Departemant of Psychology and Counseling, Arak University, Arak, Iran

3 Department of Education, Arak University, Arak, Iran


Background: Positive and negative academic emotions serve a significant mediating role in motivating learners throughout the teaching process. Understanding what teaching methods can influence academic emotion can help teachers improve students’ learning quality. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the effectiveness of flipped learning on students’ academic emotion in the university course ‘History of Islam’.
Methods: This quasi-experimental study entailed a pre-test and a post-test with a control group. The population of the study included all undergraduate students of Arak University in the course ‘History of Islam’ in 2022, who were randomly divided into control and experimental groups. The sample size was estimated to be 33 for each group. There were 33 participants in the control group and the experimental groups, respectively. The control group was trained conventionally by lectures and the experimental group was trained through flipped learning. The data collection instrument was Academic Emotions Questionnaire presented by Pekrun et al. (2006). The content validity of Pekrun’s (2006) Academic Emotions Questionnaire was confirmed by five members of the faculty of Psychology. In addition, the questionnaire’s internal consistency which was estimated through Cronbach’s alpha turned out to be 0.72. Analysis of covariance was used to analyze the data
Results: The participants in the two groups were girls, and their field of study was Psychology. The average age of the experimental group was 23.22 (SD=1.54), and that of the control group was 23.43 (SD=1.58). They also indicated that flipped learning had a significant effect on boredom (P=0.007), and anger (P=0.036), and had no significant effect on enjoyment (P=0.054), hope (P=0.655), pride (P=0.878), shame (P=0.147), and anxiety (P=0.423).
Conclusions: According to the findings, given that flipped learning have a significant effect on students ‘academic emotion, and given that academic emotion—as a mediating variable—can affect students’ learning, it is recommended that university faculty members apply this approach in their classes


Asikainen H, Hailikari T, Mattsson M. The interplay between academic emotions, psychological flexibility and self-regulation as predictors of academic achievement. Journal of Further and Higher Education. 2018; 42(4):439-53. doi:10.1080/0309877X.2017.1281889F.
Han Y, Hyland F. Academic emotions in written corrective feedback situations. Journal of English for Academic Purposes. 2019; 38(1):1-3. doi:10.1016/j. jeap.2018.12.003.
Carmona-Halty M, Salanova M, Llorens S, Schaufeli WB. Linking positive emotions and academic performance: The mediated role of academic psychological capital and academic engagement. Current Psychology. 2021; 40(6):2938- 47. doi:10.1007/s12144-019-00227-8.
Pekrun R. The Control-Value Theory of Achievement Emotions: Assumptions, Corollaries, and Implications for Educational Research and Practice. Educational Psychology Review. 2006; 18(4):315-41.doi:10.1007/s10648-006-9029-9.
Mattsson M, Hailikari T, Parpala A. All happy emotions are alike but every unhappy emotion is unhappy in its own way: a network perspective to academic emotions. Frontiers in psychology. 2020; 30(11):742. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00742.
Phan HP, Ngu BH, Alrashidi O. Role of Student Well-Being: A Study Using Structural Equation Modeling. Psychological Reports. 2016; 119(1):77- 105.doi:10.1177%2F0033294116656819.
Artino AR, Jr., Holmboe ES, Durning SJ. Control-value theory: using achievement emotions to improve understanding of motivation, learning, and performance in medical education: AMEE Guide No. 64. Medical teacher. 2012; 34(3):e148-60.doi: 10.3109/0142159X.2012.651515.
Hintsanen M, Pyhältö K. Are learning skills associated with academic emotions elicited by master’s thesis work? Journal of Further and Higher Education. 2019;43(9):1299-313.doi:10.1080/03098 77X.2018.1483012.
Putwain DW, Becker S, Symes W, Pekrun R. Reciprocal relations between students’ academic enjoyment, boredom, and achievement over time. Learning and Instruction. 2018;54:73-81. doi:10.1016/j. learninstruc.2017.08.004.
Huang C-Q, Han Z-M, Li M-X, Jong MS-y, Tsai C-C. Investigating students’ interaction patterns and dynamic learning sentiments in online discussions. Computers & Education. 2019;140:103589. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2019.05.015. 
Yang J-C, Lin M, Chen SY. Effects of anxiety levels on learning performance and gaming performance in digital game‐ based learning. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. 2018; 34(3):324-34. doi:10.1111/jcal.12245.
Oh Y, Lee S. The Effects of Online Interactions on the Relationship between Learning-Related Anxiety and Intention to Persist Among E-Learning Students with Visual Impairment. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning. 2016; 17(6):89-107. doi:10.19173/ irrodl.v17i6.2581. 
Baker R, D’Mello SK, Rodrigo MMT, Graesser AC. Better to be frustrated than bored: The incidence, persistence, and impact of learners’ cognitiveaffective states during interactions with three different computer-based learning environments. Int J Hum Comput Stud. 2010; 68:223-41. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-24600-5_5.
Yu J, Huang C, Han Z, He T, Li M. Investigating the Influence of Interaction on Learning Persistence in Online Settings: Moderation or Mediation of Academic Emotions? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(7). doi:10.3390/ ijerph17072320.
Ketonen E, Lonka K. Do Situational Academic Emotions Predict Academic Outcomes in a Lecture Course? Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2012;69:1901-10. doi:10.1016/j. sbspro.2012.12.144.
Dettmers S, Trautwein U, Lüdtke O, Goetz T, Frenzel AC, Pekrun R. Students’ emotions during homework in mathematics: Testing a theoretical model of antecedents and achievement outcomes. Contemporary Educational Psychology. 2011; 36(1):25-35. doi:10.1016/j. cedpsych.2010.10.001.
Lei H, Cui Y, Chiu MM. The Relationship between Teacher Support and Students’ Academic Emotions: A Meta-Analysis. Frontiers in psychology. 2018;8. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.02288.
AtaliaMosek A, Ben-DoriGilboa R. Integrating art in psychodynamicnarrative group work to promote the resilience of caring professionals. The Arts in Psychotherapy. 2016;51:1-9. doi:10.1016/j.aip.2016.07.001.
Rojas LF. Factors affecting academic resilience in middle school students: A case study. Gist: Education and Learning Research Journal. 2015(11):63-78. doi:10.26817/16925777.286.