Barriers to the Integration of E-learning in an Iranian Education System

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Education, University of Bojnord, Iran

2 Instructional learning and Technology Department, College of Education, Sultan Qaboos University, Oman


Introduction: Some people expect that the quality of teaching and learning will be improved by using technology, while empirical evidence has proven the opposite. But education is too complicated to improve its quality simply by employing new technologies. The purpose of this study is to investigate the barriers to the use of ICT in primary school in North Khorasan province in early 2021 academic years. Methods: To do so, we used a mixed method. In the qualitative part of the study, interview questions were identified using scientific resources and focal group. Then, 14 primary teachers and experts, who had experience of working in a school with minimal ICT equipment were selected using purposeful sampling. The exclusion criterion was the subjects’ unwillingness to continue cooperation. The qualitative data were analyzed using Colaizzi method. Based on qualitative findings, a researcher-made questionnaire with 22 items and 6 subscales was developed. The validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by experts, and its reliability was obtained from 0.61 to 0.92 for its various parts. To ensure the accuracy of the questionnaire, we performed exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis on the questionnaire. In the quantitative part of the study, the sample was randomly selected according to the size and access to technology in the classroom. Results: Quantitative analyses revealed that there was a negative association (r=-0.182; P=0.021) between the teaching-learning quality and the use of emerging technology. Regression test showed that the most important barrier to the ICT use in school was “Equipment and infrastructure” (β=-0.256; P<0.001) and then the “Budget and monetary resources” (β=-0.148; P=0.053), “Teachers’ self-confidence” (β=-0.119; P=0.137), and “Teachers’ knowledge and skill” (β=-0.058; P=0.473). Conclusion: The quality of teaching and learning is not improved by the mere presence of ICT equipment. Based on the findings of the current study, if the managers intend to remove the obstacles related to the integration of ICT in education, they have to provide sufficient “Equipment and infrastructure” and “Budget and monetary resources”, and plan for improving “Teachers’ selfconfidence” and “Teachers’ knowledge and skill”.


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